Arsenic Removal and Deselination of Sea Water

 

    The presence of toxic metals in ground water and sea water sources is an important issue in water and waste water treatment, as their consequences on human health have been well established. Exposure to inorganic arsenic can cause various health effects, such as irritation of the stomach and intestines, decreased production of red and white blood cells, skin changes and lung irritation. High percentage of salinity in sea water is the main impediment for the utilization of sea water for domestic purposes. Salinity of sea water is due to the presence of metals like sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium etc. Carbon based nanomaterials (activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, graphene) have attracted the attention of scientific community due to their novel properties like large surface area, long range of porosity, good thermal stability and good mechanical strength. These properties encourage the use of carbon based as nanomembranes for water filtration. Nanopores of carbon nanotubes, modified with functional groups, can act as adsorption sites for metallic impurities.
Supercapacitor based electrodes using carbon nanostructures are quite efficient in removing metals like sodium, arsenic, magnesium, calcium etc.  These electrodes are able to desalinate sea water without any pretreatment of sea water.

Industrial Waste Water Recovery and Dye Removal

 

Textile/leather/molasses waste-waters contains considerable amount of suspended solids and of weakly biodegradable substances (additives, detergents, surfactants ) and odor. In consequence, these effluents present environmental problems.Filtration of water and other liquids through granulated activated carbon (A variety of raw materials, including wood and coal, are used in combination with activated carbon).Since  most textile dyes have complex aromatic molecular structures that resist degradation, they are stable to light and oxidising agents.

The objectives is to synthesis low cost effective of filtration of water and other liquids through functionalized nanocomposites that remove taste, odour (Geosmin and MIB) and toxic contaminants and dissolved solvents and oils. We have synthesized  different functionalized nanocomposite adsorbants containing  3 D, 2 D and 1 D nanomaterials which adsorb different dyes from industrial waste-waters  and textile/leather/ molasses waste-waters. These nanocomposite adsorbants are capable of removing oil from water.

Carbon dioxide adsorption and conversion


The growing needs of fossil fuel energy pose a great challenge in the control of CO2 emissions in our atmosphere. The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has led to concerns about global warming. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and graphene due to their high surface area, high porosity and good mechanical strength can be used as gas adsorbent. These carbon nanostructures provide suitable platform for the decoration of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles and avoid their agglomeration.

Metal/metal oxide decorated carbon nanostructures utilize the physical adsorption of CO2 in the pores and chemical bonding of CO2 molecules with metal/metal oxide nanoparticles. Hence more CO2 adsorption can be achieved by these nanocomposites. These nanocomposites can be used as CO2 adsorbent at high pressures, especially for the storage of CO2 coming out from thermal power plants and cement industries by compressing the exhaust with some means.

 

 

 

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